On this day in history, April 25

The guillotine claimed its first victim, the first state in the country began requiring license plates on automobiles, and an American schoolgirl was invited to the Soviet Union after she wrote a letter describing her fear of nuclear war.
404 BC – Peloponnesian WarLysander's Spartan Armies defeated the Athenians and the war ends.

1607 – Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar.

1644 – The Chongzhen Emperor, the last Emperor of Ming Dynasty China, commits suicide during a peasant rebellion led by Li Zicheng.

1792 – Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier becomes the first person executed by guillotine.

1847 – The last survivors of the Donner Party are out of the wilderness.

1859 – British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal.

1898 – Spanish-American War: The United States declares war on Spain.

1901 – New York becomes the first U.S. state to require automobile license plates.

1944 – The United Negro College Fund is incorporated.

1945 – Fifty nations gather in San Francisco, California to begin the United Nations Conference on International Organizations.

1953 – Francis Crick and James D. Watson publish "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" describing the double helix structure of DNA.

1960 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.

1961 – Robert Noyce is granted a patent for an integrated circuit.

1965 – Teenage sniper Michael Andrew Clark kills three and wounds six others shooting from a hilltop along Highway 101 just south of Santa Maria, California.

1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – The North Vietnamese 320th Division forces 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.

1981 – More than 100 workers are exposed to radiation during repairs of a nuclear power plant in Tsuruga, Japan.

1982 – Israel completes its withdrawal from the Sinai peninsula per the Camp David Accords.

1983 – American schoolgirl Samantha Smith is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.

1983 – Pioneer 10 travels beyond Pluto's orbit.
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